ACT ACT English ACT American College Testing: English Section Online Training

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1. DIRECTIONS: In the passage below, certain phrases are underlined and numbered <x>. The question will present alternatives for the underlined part. In most cases, you are to choose the one that best expresses the idea, makes the statement appropriate for standard written English, or is worded most consistently with the style and tone of the passage as a whole. If you think the original version is the best, choose "NO CHANGE".



Bicycles

[§1] (1) Today, bicycles are so common that it’s hard to believe they haven’t always been around. (2) But two hundred years ago, bicycles weren’t even existing, <1> and the first bicycle, invented in Germany in 1818, was nothing like our bicycles today C it was made of wood and didn’t even have pedals. (3) Since then, however, numerous innovations and improvements in design have made the bicycle one of the most popular means of recreation and transportation around the world.



[§2] (4) In 1839, Kirkpatrick Macmillan a Scottish blacksmith, <2> dramatically improved upon the original bicycle design. (5) Macmillan’s machine had tires with iron rims to keep them from getting worn down. (6) He also used foot-operated cranks similar to pedals so his bicycle could be ridden at a quick pace. <3> (7) It hadn’t looked <4> much like a modern bicycle, though, because its back wheel was substantially larger than its front wheel. (8) In 1861, the French Michaux brothers took the evolution of the bicycle a step further by inventing an improved crank mechanism.



[§3] (9) Ten years later, James Starley, an English inventor, revolutionized bicycle design. (10) He, made <5> the front wheel many times larger than the back wheel, putting a gear on <6> the pedals to make the bicycle more efficient, and lightened the wheels by using wire spokes. (11) Although this bicycle was much lighter and less tiring to ride, it was still clumsy, extremely top-heavy, and ridden mostly for entertainment.



[§4] (12) It wasn’t until 1874 that the first truly modern bicycle appeared on the scene. (13) Today their built, <7> used, and enjoyed all over the world. (14) H. J. Lawson, invented by another Englishman, <8> the “safety bicycle” would look familiar to today’s cyclists. (15) This bicycle had equal sized wheels, which made it less prone to toppling over. (16) Lawson also attached a chain to the pedals to drive the rear wheel. (17) With these improvements, the bicycle became extremely popular and useful for transportation.

<1>:

2. DIRECTIONS: In the passage below, certain phrases are underlined and numbered <x>. The question will present alternatives for the underlined part. In most cases, you are to choose the one that best expresses the idea, makes the statement appropriate for standard written English, or is worded most consistently with the style and tone of the passage as a whole. If you think the original version is the best, choose "NO CHANGE".



Bicycles

[§1] (1) Today, bicycles are so common that it’s hard to believe they haven’t always been around. (2) But two hundred years ago, bicycles weren’t even existing, <1> and the first bicycle, invented in Germany in 1818, was nothing like our bicycles today C it was made of wood and didn’t even have pedals. (3) Since then, however, numerous innovations and improvements in design have made the bicycle one of the most popular means of recreation and transportation around the world.



[ § 2] (4) In 1839, Kirkpatrick Macmillan a Scottish blacksmith, <2> dramatically improved upon the original bicycle design. (5) Macmillan’s machine had tires with iron rims to keep them from getting worn down. (6) He also used foot-operated cranks similar to pedals so his bicycle could be ridden at a quick pace. <3> (7) It hadn’t looked <4> much like a modern bicycle, though, because its back wheel was substantially larger than its front wheel. (8) In 1861, the French Michaux brothers took the evolution of the bicycle a step further by inventing an improved crank mechanism.



[§3] (9) Ten years later, James Starley, an English inventor, revolutionized bicycle design. (10) He, made <5> the front wheel many times larger than the back wheel, putting a gear on <6> the pedals to make the bicycle more efficient, and lightened the wheels by using wire spokes. (11) Although this bicycle was much lighter and less tiring to ride, it was still clumsy, extremely top-heavy, and ridden mostly for entertainment.



[§4] (12) It wasn’t until 1874 that the first truly modern bicycle appeared on the scene. (13) Today their built, <7> used, and enjoyed all over the world. (14) H. J. Lawson, invented by another Englishman, <8> the “safety bicycle” would look familiar to today’s cyclists. (15) This bicycle had equal sized wheels, which made it less prone to toppling over. (16) Lawson also attached a chain to the pedals to drive the rear wheel. (17) With these improvements, the bicycle became extremely popular and useful for transportation.

<2>:

3. DIRECTIONS: In the passage below, certain phrases are underlined and numbered <x>. The question will present alternatives for the underlined part. In most cases, you are to choose the one that best expresses the idea, makes the statement appropriate for standard written English, or is worded most consistently with the style and tone of the passage as a whole. If you think the original version is the best, choose "NO CHANGE".



Bicycles

[§1] (1) Today, bicycles are so common that it’s hard to believe they haven’t always been around. (2) But two hundred years ago, bicycles weren’t even existing, <1> and the first bicycle, invented in Germany in 1818, was nothing like our bicycles today C it was made of wood and didn’t even have pedals. (3) Since then, however, numerous innovations and improvements in design have made the bicycle one of the most popular means of recreation and transportation around the world.



[§2] (4) In 1839, Kirkpatrick Macmillan a Scottish blacksmith, <2> dramatically improved upon the original bicycle design. (5) Macmillan’s machine had tires with iron rims to keep them from getting worn down. (6) He also used foot-operated cranks similar to pedals so his bicycle could be ridden at a quick pace. <3> (7) It hadn’t looked <4> much like a modern bicycle, though, because its back wheel was substantially larger than its front wheel. (8) In 1861, the French Michaux brothers took the evolution of the bicycle a step further by inventing an improved crank mechanism.



[§3] (9) Ten years later, James Starley, an English inventor, revolutionized bicycle design. (10) He, made <5> the front wheel many times larger than the back wheel, putting a gear on <6> the pedals to make the bicycle more efficient, and lightened the wheels by using wire spokes. (11) Although this bicycle was much lighter and less tiring to ride, it was still clumsy, extremely top-heavy, and ridden mostly for entertainment.



[§4] (12) It wasn’t until 1874 that the first truly modern bicycle appeared on the scene. (13) Today their built, <7> used, and enjoyed all over the world. (14) H. J. Lawson, invented by another Englishman, <8> the “safety bicycle” would look familiar to today’s cyclists. (15) This bicycle had equal sized wheels, which made it less prone to toppling over. (16) Lawson also attached a chain to the pedals to drive the rear wheel. (17) With these improvements, the bicycle became extremely popular and useful for transportation.

<3>:

4. DIRECTIONS: In the passage below, certain phrases are underlined and numbered <x>. The question will present alternatives for the underlined part. In most cases, you are to choose the one that best expresses the idea, makes the statement appropriate for standard written English, or is worded most consistently with the style and tone of the passage as a whole. If you think the original version is the best, choose "NO CHANGE".



Bicycles

[§1] (1) Today, bicycles are so common that it’s hard to believe they haven’t always been around. (2) But two hundred years ago, bicycles weren’t even existing, <1> and the first bicycle, invented in Germany in 1818, was nothing like our bicycles today C it was made of wood and didn’t even have pedals. (3) Since then, however, numerous innovations and improvements in design have made the bicycle one of the most popular means of recreation and transportation around the world.



[§2] (4) In 1839, Kirkpatrick Macmillan a Scottish blacksmith, <2> dramatically improved upon the original bicycle design. (5) Macmillan’s machine had tires with iron rims to keep them from getting worn down. (6) He also used foot-operated cranks similar to pedals so his bicycle could be ridden at a quick pace. <3> (7) It hadn’t looked <4> much like a modern bicycle, though, because its back wheel was substantially larger than its front wheel. (8) In 1861, the French Michaux brothers took the evolution of the bicycle a step further by inventing an improved crank mechanism.



[§3] (9) Ten years later, James Starley, an English inventor, revolutionized bicycle design. (10) He, made

<5> the front wheel many times larger than the back wheel, putting a gear on <6> the pedals to make the bicycle more efficient, and lightened the wheels by using wire spokes. (11) Although this bicycle was much lighter and less tiring to ride, it was still clumsy, extremely top-heavy, and ridden mostly for entertainment.



[§4] (12) It wasn’t until 1874 that the first truly modern bicycle appeared on the scene. (13) Today their built, <7> used, and enjoyed all over the world. (14) H. J. Lawson, invented by another Englishman, <8> the “safety bicycle” would look familiar to today’s cyclists. (15) This bicycle had equal sized wheels, which made it less prone to toppling over. (16) Lawson also attached a chain to the pedals to drive the rear wheel. (17) With these improvements, the bicycle became extremely popular and useful for transportation.

<4>:

5. DIRECTIONS: In the passage below, certain phrases are underlined and numbered <x>. The question will present alternatives for the underlined part. In most cases, you are to choose the one that best expresses the idea, makes the statement appropriate for standard written English, or is worded most consistently with the style and tone of the passage as a whole. If you think the original version is the best, choose "NO CHANGE".



Bicycles

[§1] (1) Today, bicycles are so common that it’s hard to believe they haven’t always been around. (2) But two hundred years ago, bicycles weren’t even existing, <1> and the first bicycle, invented in Germany in 1818, was nothing like our bicycles today C it was made of wood and didn’t even have pedals. (3) Since then, however, numerous innovations and improvements in design have made the bicycle one of the most popular means of recreation and transportation around the world.



[§2] (4) In 1839, Kirkpatrick Macmillan a Scottish blacksmith, <2> dramatically improved upon the original bicycle design. (5) Macmillan’s machine had tires with iron rims to keep them from getting worn down. (6) He also used foot-operated cranks similar to pedals so his bicycle could be ridden at a quick pace. <3> (7) It hadn’t looked <4> much like a modern bicycle, though, because its back wheel was substantially larger than its front wheel. (8) In 1861, the French Michaux brothers took the evolution of the bicycle a step further by inventing an improved crank mechanism.



[§3] (9) Ten years later, James Starley, an English inventor, revolutionized bicycle design. (10) He, made

<5> the front wheel many times larger than the back wheel, putting a gear on <6> the pedals to make the bicycle more efficient, and lightened the wheels by using wire spokes. (11) Although this bicycle was much lighter and less tiring to ride, it was still clumsy, extremely top-heavy, and ridden mostly for entertainment.



[§4] (12) It wasn’t until 1874 that the first truly modern bicycle appeared on the scene. (13) Today their built, <7> used, and enjoyed all over the world. (14) H. J. Lawson, invented by another Englishman, <8> the “safety bicycle” would look familiar to today’s cyclists. (15) This bicycle had equal sized wheels, which made it less prone to toppling over. (16) Lawson also attached a chain to the pedals to drive the rear wheel. (17) With these improvements, the bicycle became extremely popular and useful for transportation.

<5>:

6. DIRECTIONS: In the passage below, certain phrases are underlined and numbered <x>. The question will present alternatives for the underlined part. In most cases, you are to choose the one that best expresses the idea, makes the statement appropriate for standard written English, or is worded most consistently with the style and tone of the passage as a whole. If you think the original version is the best, choose "NO CHANGE".



Bicycles

[§1] (1) Today, bicycles are so common that it’s hard to believe they haven’t always been around. (2) But two hundred years ago, bicycles weren’t even existing, <1> and the first bicycle, invented in Germany in 1818, was nothing like our bicycles today C it was made of wood and didn’t even have pedals. (3) Since then, however, numerous innovations and improvements in design have made the bicycle one of the most popular means of recreation and transportation around the world.



[§2] (4) In 1839, Kirkpatrick Macmillan a Scottish blacksmith, <2> dramatically improved upon the original bicycle design. (5) Macmillan’s machine had tires with iron rims to keep them from getting worn down. (6) He also used foot-operated cranks similar to pedals so his bicycle could be ridden at a quick pace. <3> (7) It hadn’t looked <4> much like a modern bicycle, though, because its back wheel was substantially larger than its front wheel. (8) In 1861, the French Michaux brothers took the evolution of the bicycle a step further by inventing an improved crank mechanism.



[§3] (9) Ten years later, James Starley, an English inventor, revolutionized bicycle design. (10) He, made

<5> the front wheel many times larger than the back wheel, putting a gear on <6> the pedals to make the bicycle more efficient, and lightened the wheels by using wire spokes. (11) Although this bicycle was much lighter and less tiring to ride, it was still clumsy, extremely top-heavy, and ridden mostly for entertainment.



[§4] (12) It wasn’t until 1874 that the first truly modern bicycle appeared on the scene. (13) Today their built, <7> used, and enjoyed all over the world. (14) H. J. Lawson, invented by another Englishman, <8> the “safety bicycle” would look familiar to today’s cyclists. (15) This bicycle had equal sized wheels, which made it less prone to toppling over. (16) Lawson also attached a chain to the pedals to drive the rear wheel. (17) With these improvements, the bicycle became extremely popular and useful for transportation.

<6>:

7. DIRECTIONS: In the passage below, certain phrases are underlined and numbered <x>. The question will present alternatives for the underlined part. In most cases, you are to choose the one that best expresses the idea, makes the statement appropriate for standard written English, or is worded most consistently with the style and tone of the passage as a whole. If you think the original version is the best, choose "NO CHANGE".



Bicycles

[§1] (1) Today, bicycles are so common that it’s hard to believe they haven’t always been around. (2) But two hundred years ago, bicycles weren’t even existing, <1> and the first bicycle, invented in Germany in 1818, was nothing like our bicycles today C it was made of wood and didn’t even have pedals. (3) Since then, however, numerous innovations and improvements in design have made the bicycle one of the most popular means of recreation and transportation around the world.



[§2] (4) In 1839, Kirkpatrick Macmillan a Scottish blacksmith, <2> dramatically improved upon the original bicycle design. (5) Macmillan’s machine had tires with iron rims to keep them from getting worn down. (6) He also used foot-operated cranks similar to pedals so his bicycle could be ridden at a quick pace. <3> (7) It hadn’t looked <4> much like a modern bicycle, though, because its back wheel was substantially larger than its front wheel. (8) In 1861, the French Michaux brothers took the evolution of the bicycle a step further by inventing an improved crank mechanism.



[§3] (9) Ten years later, James Starley, an English inventor, revolutionized bicycle design. (10) He, made

<5> the front wheel many times larger than the back wheel, putting a gear on <6> the pedals to make the bicycle more efficient, and lightened the wheels by using wire spokes. (11) Although this bicycle was much lighter and less tiring to ride, it was still clumsy, extremely top-heavy, and ridden mostly for entertainment.



[§4] (12) It wasn’t until 1874 that the first truly modern bicycle appeared on the scene. (13) Today their built, <7> used, and enjoyed all over the world. (14) H. J. Lawson, invented by another Englishman, <8> the “safety bicycle” would look familiar to today’s cyclists. (15) This bicycle had equal sized wheels, which made it less prone to toppling over. (16) Lawson also attached a chain to the pedals to drive the rear wheel. (17) With these improvements, the bicycle became extremely popular and useful for transportation.

<7>:

8. DIRECTIONS: In the passage below, certain phrases are underlined and numbered <x>. The question will present alternatives for the underlined part. In most cases, you are to choose the one that best expresses the idea, makes the statement appropriate for standard written English, or is worded most consistently with the style and tone of the passage as a whole. If you think the original version is the best, choose "NO CHANGE".



Bicycles

[§1] (1) Today, bicycles are so common that it’s hard to believe they haven’t always been around. (2) But two hundred years ago, bicycles weren’t even existing, <1> and the first bicycle, invented in Germany in 1818, was nothing like our bicycles today C it was made of wood and didn’t even have pedals. (3) Since then, however, numerous innovations and improvements in design have made the bicycle one of the most popular means of recreation and transportation around the world.



[§2] (4) In 1839, Kirkpatrick Macmillan a Scottish blacksmith, <2> dramatically improved upon the original bicycle design. (5) Macmillan’s machine had tires with iron rims to keep them from getting worn down. (6) He also used foot-operated cranks similar to pedals so his bicycle could be ridden at a quick pace. <3> (7) It hadn’t looked <4> much like a modern bicycle, though, because its back wheel was substantially larger than its front wheel. (8) In 1861, the French Michaux brothers took the evolution of the bicycle a step further by inventing an improved crank mechanism.



[§3] (9) Ten years later, James Starley, an English inventor, revolutionized bicycle design. (10) He, made

<5> the front wheel many times larger than the back wheel, putting a gear on <6> the pedals to make the bicycle more efficient, and lightened the wheels by using wire spokes. (11) Although this bicycle was much lighter and less tiring to ride, it was still clumsy, extremely top-heavy, and ridden mostly for entertainment.



[§4] (12) It wasn’t until 1874 that the first truly modern bicycle appeared on the scene. (13) Today their built, <7> used, and enjoyed all over the world. (14) H. J. Lawson, invented by another Englishman, <8> the “safety bicycle” would look familiar to today’s cyclists. (15) This bicycle had equal sized wheels, which made it less prone to toppling over. (16) Lawson also attached a chain to the pedals to drive the rear wheel. (17) With these improvements, the bicycle became extremely popular and useful for transportation.

<8>:

9. DIRECTIONS: In the passage below, certain phrases are underlined and numbered <x>. The question will present alternatives for the underlined part. In most cases, you are to choose the one that best expresses the idea, makes the statement appropriate for standard written English, or is worded most consistently with the style and tone of the passage as a whole. If you think the original version is the best, choose "NO CHANGE".



Bicycles

[§1] (1) Today, bicycles are so common that it’s hard to believe they haven’t always been around. (2) But two hundred years ago, bicycles weren’t even existing, <1> and the first bicycle, invented in Germany in 1818, was nothing like our bicycles today C it was made of wood and didn’t even have pedals. (3) Since then, however, numerous innovations and improvements in design have made the bicycle one of the most popular means of recreation and transportation around the world.



[§2] (4) In 1839, Kirkpatrick Macmillan a Scottish blacksmith, <2> dramatically improved upon the original bicycle design. (5) Macmillan’s machine had tires with iron rims to keep them from getting worn down. (6) He also used foot-operated cranks similar to pedals so his bicycle could be ridden at a quick pace. <3> (7) It hadn’t looked <4> much like a modern bicycle, though, because its back wheel was substantially larger than its front wheel. (8) In 1861, the French Michaux brothers took the evolution of the bicycle a step further by inventing an improved crank mechanism.



[§3] (9) Ten years later, James Starley, an English inventor, revolutionized bicycle design. (10) He, made

<5> the front wheel many times larger than the back wheel, putting a gear on <6> the pedals to make the bicycle more efficient, and lightened the wheels by using wire spokes. (11) Although this bicycle was much lighter and less tiring to ride, it was still clumsy, extremely top-heavy, and ridden mostly for entertainment.



[§4] (12) It wasn’t until 1874 that the first truly modern bicycle appeared on the scene. (13) Today their built, <7> used, and enjoyed all over the world. (14) H. J. Lawson, invented by another Englishman, <8> the “safety bicycle” would look familiar to today’s cyclists. (15) This bicycle had equal sized wheels, which made it less prone to toppling over. (16) Lawson also attached a chain to the pedals to drive the rear wheel. (17) With these improvements, the bicycle became extremely popular and useful for transportation.

If the writer were trying to convince readers to buy a bicycle, he would:

10. DIRECTIONS: In the passage below, certain phrases are underlined and numbered <x>. The question will present alternatives for the underlined part. In most cases, you are to choose the one that best expresses the idea, makes the statement appropriate for standard written English, or is worded most consistently with the style and tone of the passage as a whole. If you think the original version is the best, choose "NO CHANGE".



Bicycles

[§1] (1) Today, bicycles are so common that it’s hard to believe they haven’t always been around. (2) But two hundred years ago, bicycles weren’t even existing, <1> and the first bicycle, invented in Germany in 1818, was nothing like our bicycles today C it was made of wood and didn’t even have pedals. (3) Since then, however, numerous innovations and improvements in design have made the bicycle one of the most popular means of recreation and transportation around the world.



[§2] (4) In 1839, Kirkpatrick Macmillan a Scottish blacksmith, <2> dramatically improved upon the original bicycle design. (5) Macmillan’s machine had tires with iron rims to keep them from getting worn down. (6) He also used foot-operated cranks similar to pedals so his bicycle could be ridden at a quick pace. <3> (7) It hadn’t looked <4> much like a modern bicycle, though, because its back wheel was substantially larger than its front wheel. (8) In 1861, the French Michaux brothers took the evolution of the bicycle a step further by inventing an improved crank mechanism.



[§3] (9) Ten years later, James Starley, an English inventor, revolutionized bicycle design. (10) He, made

<5> the front wheel many times larger than the back wheel, putting a gear on <6> the pedals to make the bicycle more efficient, and lightened the wheels by using wire spokes. (11) Although this bicycle was much lighter and less tiring to ride, it was still clumsy, extremely top-heavy, and ridden mostly for entertainment.



[§4] (12) It wasn’t until 1874 that the first truly modern bicycle appeared on the scene. (13) Today their built, <7> used, and enjoyed all over the world. (14) H. J. Lawson, invented by another Englishman, <8> the “safety bicycle” would look familiar to today’s cyclists. (15) This bicycle had equal sized wheels, which made it less prone to toppling over. (16) Lawson also attached a chain to the pedals to drive the rear wheel. (17) With these improvements, the bicycle became extremely popular and useful for transportation.

Which of the following sequences makes paragraph 4 most logical?


 

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